La violencia es una problemática de salud pública

La violencia es una problemática de salud pública
Cada año, más de 1,6 millones de personas en todo el mundo pierden la vida por causas de violencia. Además, la violencia provoca daños en la salud física y deja graves secuelas en la salud psíquica. Desde Surcos los invitamos a reflexionar sobre el tema para aprender, prevenir y erradicarla.
Por cada persona que muere por causas violentas, muchas más resultan heridas y sufren una diversidad de problemas físicos y emocionales. El rol del sistema sanitario es primordial para advertir los casos a tiempo y salvar vidas.

Durante el año 2015 en Argentina murieron 286 mujeres víctimas de la violencia de género y como consecuencia 214 niñ@s quedaron sin madre. Las causas externas representan más del 60% de las muertes de adolescentes de 15 a 17 años, las que incluyen los accidentes, la violencia, los suicidios y homicidios.
Alejandra Vázquez, psicóloga especialista en violencia e integrante de Surcos, afirma que “la violencia provoca daños físicos, que van desde heridas, golpes y hematomas a  enfermedades; y también problemas en la salud psíquica como depresiones, síndrome de estrés postraumático y trastornos psicosomáticos”. Por este motivo, advierte que “el personal sanitario tiene que estar atento a esta realidad, para poder dar una respuesta adecuada porque no siempre las víctimas de violencia comunican lo que están viviendo”.
Existen diversas formas de  ejercer violencia, además de la física, como la violencia psicológica o ambiental. La violencia psicológica se caracteriza por provocarle angustia emocional a la víctima a través de  gritos, humillaciones, descalificaciones que afectan la autoestima y provocan daños en la salud. La violencia ambiental es aquella diriga a ocasionar daños a objetos con valor emocional para las víctimas con el fin de intimidarlas, lo cual afecta también las emociones de quienes la padecen. Estos tipos de violencias generan vínculos dependientes con los otros y generalmente las víctimas suelen sentirse culpables y responsables de los maltratos que reciben.
La violencia en muchos casos provoca sentimientos de vergüenza en quienes la padecen y en muchos casos las víctimas buscan ocultarla”, advierte Vázquez y agrega que “gran cantidad de las consultas al sistema de salud son consecuencias de la violencia y esto se suele  pasar por alto”.
El sistema sanitario tiene una responsabilidad muy importante para prevenir la violencia”, asegura Vázquez y explica que los profesionales tienen que capacitarse en la temática para identificar cuáles son los indicadores que podrían dar cuenta  que una persona está siendo maltratada y en los casos en que sea necesario intervenir y denunciar en la Justicia.
Desde Surcos se desarrollan proyectos que promueven la articulación de Organismos Gubernamentales y Organizaciones de la Sociedad Civil con el fin de mejorar los canales institucionales de respuesta a la problemática de la violencia. En relación a esto, se trabaja con medios de comunicación en la sensibilización de la problemática, se capacitan operadores barriales que puedan acompañar a víctimas de violencia y movilizar los recursos locales para su abordaje,  profesionales de la salud, docentes y líderes juveniles. Además colabora con las fuerzas policiales con el fin de optimizar la atención a las víctimas de violencia.
Durante los meses de octubre y noviembre se estará desarrollando la capacitación “Operadores en Violencia Familiar en el Ámbito Social y Sanitario” impulsada por Surcos Asociación Civil junto a la Dirección de Políticas de Género de la Municipalidad de Escobar. El curso tiene el objetivo de capacitar en temas conceptuales que permitan visualizar y detectar situaciones de violencia en cualquiera de sus formas y modalidades.
La violencia es un problema social que posee solución. Generar redes, involucrase y construir comunidades más participativas colabora en su eliminación y la construcción de entornos menos violentos, más comprensivos y saludables.

Omar Suárez

Formado en la Universidad de Bs. As - Desde chico descubrió su vocación por el periodismo - Hace 30 años trabaja en distintos medios de comunicación regionales y actualmente conduce el programa Vuelta a Casa por FM Frecuencia - es parte del quipo periodístico de TigreVisión - Programa partidario del club atlético Tigre, y Director, creador y propietario de www.alternativaenpapel.com.ar.

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